Citation for this page in APA citation style.           Close


Philosophers

Mortimer Adler
Rogers Albritton
Alexander of Aphrodisias
Samuel Alexander
William Alston
Anaximander
G.E.M.Anscombe
Anselm
Louise Antony
Thomas Aquinas
Aristotle
David Armstrong
Harald Atmanspacher
Robert Audi
Augustine
J.L.Austin
A.J.Ayer
Alexander Bain
Mark Balaguer
Jeffrey Barrett
William Belsham
Henri Bergson
George Berkeley
Isaiah Berlin
Richard J. Bernstein
Bernard Berofsky
Robert Bishop
Max Black
Susanne Bobzien
Emil du Bois-Reymond
Hilary Bok
Laurence BonJour
George Boole
Émile Boutroux
F.H.Bradley
C.D.Broad
Michael Burke
C.A.Campbell
Joseph Keim Campbell
Rudolf Carnap
Carneades
Ernst Cassirer
David Chalmers
Roderick Chisholm
Chrysippus
Cicero
Randolph Clarke
Samuel Clarke
Anthony Collins
Antonella Corradini
Diodorus Cronus
Jonathan Dancy
Donald Davidson
Mario De Caro
Democritus
Daniel Dennett
Jacques Derrida
René Descartes
Richard Double
Fred Dretske
John Dupré
John Earman
Laura Waddell Ekstrom
Epictetus
Epicurus
Herbert Feigl
John Martin Fischer
Owen Flanagan
Luciano Floridi
Philippa Foot
Alfred Fouilleé
Harry Frankfurt
Richard L. Franklin
Michael Frede
Gottlob Frege
Peter Geach
Edmund Gettier
Carl Ginet
Alvin Goldman
Gorgias
Nicholas St. John Green
H.Paul Grice
Ian Hacking
Ishtiyaque Haji
Stuart Hampshire
W.F.R.Hardie
Sam Harris
William Hasker
R.M.Hare
Georg W.F. Hegel
Martin Heidegger
Heraclitus
R.E.Hobart
Thomas Hobbes
David Hodgson
Shadsworth Hodgson
Baron d'Holbach
Ted Honderich
Pamela Huby
David Hume
Ferenc Huoranszki
William James
Lord Kames
Robert Kane
Immanuel Kant
Tomis Kapitan
Jaegwon Kim
William King
Hilary Kornblith
Christine Korsgaard
Saul Kripke
Andrea Lavazza
Keith Lehrer
Gottfried Leibniz
Leucippus
Michael Levin
George Henry Lewes
C.I.Lewis
David Lewis
Peter Lipton
C. Lloyd Morgan
John Locke
Michael Lockwood
E. Jonathan Lowe
John R. Lucas
Lucretius
Alasdair MacIntyre
Ruth Barcan Marcus
James Martineau
Storrs McCall
Hugh McCann
Colin McGinn
Michael McKenna
Brian McLaughlin
John McTaggart
Paul E. Meehl
Uwe Meixner
Alfred Mele
Trenton Merricks
John Stuart Mill
Dickinson Miller
G.E.Moore
Thomas Nagel
Friedrich Nietzsche
John Norton
P.H.Nowell-Smith
Robert Nozick
William of Ockham
Timothy O'Connor
Parmenides
David F. Pears
Charles Sanders Peirce
Derk Pereboom
Steven Pinker
Plato
Karl Popper
Porphyry
Huw Price
H.A.Prichard
Protagoras
Hilary Putnam
Willard van Orman Quine
Frank Ramsey
Ayn Rand
Michael Rea
Thomas Reid
Charles Renouvier
Nicholas Rescher
C.W.Rietdijk
Richard Rorty
Josiah Royce
Bertrand Russell
Paul Russell
Gilbert Ryle
Jean-Paul Sartre
Kenneth Sayre
T.M.Scanlon
Moritz Schlick
Arthur Schopenhauer
John Searle
Wilfrid Sellars
Alan Sidelle
Ted Sider
Henry Sidgwick
Walter Sinnott-Armstrong
J.J.C.Smart
Saul Smilansky
Michael Smith
Baruch Spinoza
L. Susan Stebbing
Isabelle Stengers
George F. Stout
Galen Strawson
Peter Strawson
Eleonore Stump
Francisco Suárez
Richard Taylor
Kevin Timpe
Mark Twain
Peter Unger
Peter van Inwagen
Manuel Vargas
John Venn
Kadri Vihvelin
Voltaire
G.H. von Wright
David Foster Wallace
R. Jay Wallace
W.G.Ward
Ted Warfield
Roy Weatherford
William Whewell
Alfred North Whitehead
David Widerker
David Wiggins
Bernard Williams
Timothy Williamson
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Susan Wolf

Scientists

Michael Arbib
Bernard Baars
Gregory Bateson
John S. Bell
Charles Bennett
Ludwig von Bertalanffy
Susan Blackmore
Margaret Boden
David Bohm
Niels Bohr
Ludwig Boltzmann
Emile Borel
Max Born
Satyendra Nath Bose
Walther Bothe
Hans Briegel
Leon Brillouin
Stephen Brush
Henry Thomas Buckle
S. H. Burbury
Donald Campbell
Anthony Cashmore
Eric Chaisson
Jean-Pierre Changeux
Arthur Holly Compton
John Conway
John Cramer
E. P. Culverwell
Charles Darwin
Terrence Deacon
Louis de Broglie
Max Delbrück
Abraham de Moivre
Paul Dirac
Hans Driesch
John Eccles
Arthur Stanley Eddington
Paul Ehrenfest
Albert Einstein
Hugh Everett, III
Franz Exner
Richard Feynman
R. A. Fisher
Joseph Fourier
Lila Gatlin
Michael Gazzaniga
GianCarlo Ghirardi
J. Willard Gibbs
Nicolas Gisin
Paul Glimcher
Thomas Gold
A.O.Gomes
Brian Goodwin
Joshua Greene
Jacques Hadamard
Patrick Haggard
Stuart Hameroff
Augustin Hamon
Sam Harris
Hyman Hartman
John-Dylan Haynes
Martin Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
John Herschel
Jesper Hoffmeyer
E. T. Jaynes
William Stanley Jevons
Roman Jakobson
Pascual Jordan
Ruth E. Kastner
Stuart Kauffman
Martin J. Klein
Simon Kochen
Stephen Kosslyn
Ladislav Kovàč
Rolf Landauer
Alfred Landé
Pierre-Simon Laplace
David Layzer
Benjamin Libet
Seth Lloyd
Hendrik Lorentz
Josef Loschmidt
Ernst Mach
Donald MacKay
Henry Margenau
James Clerk Maxwell
Ernst Mayr
Ulrich Mohrhoff
Jacques Monod
Emmy Noether
Abraham Pais
Howard Pattee
Wolfgang Pauli
Massimo Pauri
Roger Penrose
Steven Pinker
Colin Pittendrigh
Max Planck
Susan Pockett
Henri Poincaré
Daniel Pollen
Ilya Prigogine
Hans Primas
Adolphe Quételet
Juan Roederer
Jerome Rothstein
David Ruelle
Erwin Schrödinger
Aaron Schurger
Claude Shannon
David Shiang
Herbert Simon
Dean Keith Simonton
B. F. Skinner
Roger Sperry
John Stachel
Henry Stapp
Tom Stonier
Antoine Suarez
Leo Szilard
William Thomson (Kelvin)
Peter Tse
Vlatko Vedral
Heinz von Foerster
John von Neumann
John B. Watson
Daniel Wegner
Steven Weinberg
Paul A. Weiss
John Wheeler
Wilhelm Wien
Norbert Wiener
Eugene Wigner
E. O. Wilson
H. Dieter Zeh
Ernst Zermelo
Wojciech Zurek

Presentations

Biosemiotics
Free Will
Mental Causation
James Symposium
 
Metaphysics:
Problems, Paradoxes, and Puzzles Solved?

Published December 15, 2016.

428 pages, 6 figures, bibliography, index.

Philosophers can download a PDF of the complete book here with an interactive table of contents and index (PDF bookmarks).

You may also a download a fixed layout eBook or a reflowable eBook (with an interactive table of contents and index, suitable for iBooks, Kindle Fire, and other eReaders).

To request a review/examination copy, send an email with your philosophy department mailing address to bobdoyle@informationphilosopher.com.

You may click on a particular chapter below to get a PDF of just that chapter.

Contents Click to download chapter
Covers

Table of Contents
Preface, xi
How To Use This Book With The Metaphysicist Website, 1

1. Introduction, 3

2. Abstract Entities 13

Information as a Physical Cause 16; The Idea of Abstraction 17; Colors as Abstract Entities 18

3. Being and Becoming 21

Being and Becoming in Modern Physics 22

4. Causality 25

What Counts as a Cause? 26; The Problem of Induction 30; Induction and the Scientific Method 31

5. Chance 35

The Discovery of Ontological Chance 43

6. Change 47

Cosmic Change as the Growth of Information Structures 50

7. Coinciding Objects 55

An Information Analysis of “Coinciding Objects” 59

8. Composition 63

Temporal Parts 66; Mereology 67; Mereological Essentialism 69; Biomereological Essentialism 72; Composition as Holism and Emergence 73

9. Constitution 75

Is Constitution Identity? 75

10. Essentialism 79

Intrinsic Information as Essence 79; Natural Kinds and Mereological Essentialism 80

11. Free Will 83

The Two-Stage Model of Free Will 85; Does Ontological Chance Threaten Free Will? 92

12. God and Immortality 95

No Creator, But There Was/Is A Creation 96; The Ergod 97; The Problem of Immortality 98

13. Identity 101

Information Identity 101; A Criterion for Identity 101; A Criterion for Essence 103; Background of the Problem 104; Leibniz 107; Leibniz’s Laws 108; Frege 109; Peirce 111; Principia Mathematica 112; Wittgenstein 113; Frank Ramsey on Identity 114; Willard Van Orman Quine on Identity 115; Ruth Barcan Marcus 120; David Wiggins 121; Saul Kripke on Identity 122; Peter Geach on Relative Identity 125; David Lewis 126; Relative Identity 126; A = A 129; Identity through Time 130; Changes in Time 131; Personal Identity 132; Identity and Biology 132; Vague Identity 133

14. Individuation 135

The History of Individuation 135; The Biology of Individuation 139; Individuation and Quantum Mechanics 140

15. Mind-Body Problem 143

The Problem of Mental Causation 144; Mind as an Experience Recorder and Reproducer 146; Consciousness a Property of Mind 149

16. Modality 151

Actual Possibles and Possible Possibles 155; The Many Possible Worlds in Our Actual World 156; Necessity of Identity and the Limits of Necessitism 157; Modal Realism and Possible Worlds 159

17. Necessity (or Contingency) 161

The Logical Necessity of the Analytic and the A Priori 161; The Logical Necessity of Necessity 162; The Necessity of Identity 165; Separating Necessity from Analyticity and A Prioricity 167; Necessity and Free Will 170; No Logical Necessity in the Material World 172; Necessitism 173

18. Persistence 175

Perdurance 177; Endurance 179; Temporal Parts? 179

19. Possibility 181

Actual Possibles 183; Actualism 184; Possibilities in Quantum Mechanics 185; Shannon and Quantum Indeterminism 186; An Information Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics 189; Possible Worlds 190; Other Possible Worlds 193

20. Space and Time 195

Space and Time in Quantum Physics 196; Nonlocality and Entanglement 200; Visualizing Entanglement 201; Can Metaphysics Solve the EPR Paradox? 203

21. Universals 207

The One and the Many 211

22.Vagueness 213

Vagueness and the Two-Slit Experiment 215

23. Wave-Particle Duality 217

The Heart of the Puzzle 218; The History of Waves and Particles 221; Dueling Wave and Particle Theories 222; Dirac on Wave-Particle Duality 225

24. The Debtor’s Paradox 227

Information Philosophy Resolves the Debtor’s Paradox 229

25. Dion and Theon 233

What Chrysippus May Have Been Doing 234; An Information Philosophy Analysis 237

26. Frege’s Puzzle 241

Names and Reference 243; Quine’s Paradoxes 244; The New Theory of Reference 246

27. The Growing Argument 249

28. The Infinite Regress 253

29. Porphyry’s Fateful Question 257

30. The Problem of the Many 259

Peter Unger 261; Peter Geach 262

31. The Ship of Theseus 265

How Information Philosophy Resolves the Paradox 265; How to Make Two Ships Out of One. 266

32. Sorites Puzzle 269

Liar Paradox 271

33. The Statue and the Clay 273

How to Make Two Out of One 275

34. Tibbles, the Cat 279

35. Metaphysicians 285

David M. Armstrong 285; Michael Burke 287; Rudolf Carnap 292; David Chalmers 293; Roderick Chisholm 296; René Descartes 298; Peter Geach 300; David Hume 302; Immanuel Kant 304; Saul Kripke 305; David Lewis 315; E. Jonathan Lowe 316; Ruth Barcan Marcus 318; Trenton Merricks 319; Huw Price 323; Willard Van Orman Quine 325; Michael Rea 330; Alan Sidelle 332; Ted Sider 335; Peter Unger 339; Peter van Inwagen 340; Timothy Williamson 349

36. A History of Metaphysics 353

The Presocratics 353; Socrates and Plato 354; Aristotle 354; The Stoics 356; Academic Skeptics 360; The Scholastics 360; Descartes 361; Leibniz 361; The Empiricists 364; Kant 365; Positivisms 366; Linguistic Analysis 369; Modal Logic 370; The Necessity of Identity 374; David Wiggins on Identity 375; Saul Kripke on Identity 377; David Lewis on Identity 378; Modal Logic and Possible Worlds 379; Why Modal Logic Is Not Metaphysics 381; The Return of Metaphysics and Its Paradoxes 384

Appendix: Great Problems Solved? 387

Bibliography, 397

Index, 404

Normal | Teacher | Scholar