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Philosophers

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Articles on Metaphysics
We collect most of the articles on metaphysics in this one folder on The Metaphysicist website.

Some are in other folders, for example the author's folder on the Information Philosopher website. In that case, we will provide links from here.

This page can serve as an index to the articles by author and date, in APA format, as copied from the article's citation on Google Scholar.

You may also find the articles organized by Problems or Puzzles as the References on a specific problem or puzzle page.

Note: These articles have been uploaded to The Metaphysicist for academic use by scholars researching metaphysics. We believe this to be a fair use. If anyone wants to have an article removed, please email bobdoyle@informationphilosopher.com.


Baker, L. R. (1997). "Why constitution is not identity." The Journal of Philosophy, 94(12), 599-621.
Baker, L. R. (2008). "A metaphysics of ordinary things and why we need it." Philosophy, 83(01), 5-24.
Barcan, R. C. (1946). "A functional calculus of first order based on strict implication." The Journal of Symbolic Logic, 11(01), 1-16.
Barcan, R. C. (1946). "The deduction theorem in a functional calculus of first order based on strict implication." The Journal of Symbolic Logic, 11(04), 115-118.
Barcan, R. C. (1947). "The identity of individuals in a strict functional calculus of second order." The Journal of Symbolic Logic, 12(01), 12-15.
Black, Max. 1952. "The Identity of Indiscernibles." Mind 61: 153-64.
Block, N. (1995). "The mind as the software of the brain." New York, 3, 377-425.
Bowin, J. (2003). "Chrysippus' Puzzle About Identity." Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 24: 239-251
Burke, M. B. 1992. "Copper Statues and Pieces of Copper: A Challenge to the Standard Account." Analysis 52: 12-17.
Burke, M. B. (1994a). Preserving the principle of one object to a place: A novel account of the relations among objects, sorts, sortals, and persistence conditions. "Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 54(3), 591-624.
Burke, M. B. (1994b). "Dion and Theon: An essentialist solution to an ancient puzzle." The Journal of Philosophy, 91(3), 129-139.
Burke, M. B. (1996). Tibbles the cat: A Modern "Sophisma". Philosophical Studies, 84(1), 63-74.
Burke, M. B. (1997). Coinciding objects: reply to Lowe and Denkel. Analysis, 57(1), 11-18.
Burke, M. B. (2004). Dion, Theon, and the many-thinkers problem. Analysis, 64(3), 242-250.
Butler, J. (1838). "Of Personal Identity," The Whole Works of Joseph Butler.
Carnap, R. (1988). Meaning and necessity: a study in semantics and modal logic. University of Chicago Press.
Carter, W. R. 1982. "On Contingent Identity and Temporal Worms." Philosophical Studies 41: 213-30.
Carter, W. R. 1983. "In Defense of Undetached Parts." Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 64: 126-43.
Charlton, W. 1970. Aristotle's Physics, I, II. Oxford: Clarendon.
Charlton, W. (1972). "Aristotle and the Principle of Individuation." Phronesis, 239-249.
Chisholm, Roderick. 1966. Theory of Knowledge. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Chisholm, Roderick. 1973. "Parts as Essential to Their Wholes." Review of Metaphysics 26: 581-603.
Chisholm, Roderick. 1976. Person and Object. La Salle, IL: Open Court Publishing Company.
Chisholm, Roderick M.(1989) On Metaphysics, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Cohen, S. M. (1984). "Aristotle and individuation." Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 14(sup1), 41-65.
Evans, Gareth. 1978. "Can There Be Vague Objects?" Analysis 38: 208.
Frege, G., Geach, P. T., & Black, M. (1951). On concept and object. Mind, 60(238), 168-180.
Geach, P. T. 1965. "Some Problems about Time." Proceedings of the British Academy 51: 320-36.
Geach, P. T. 1967. "Identity." Review of Metaphysics 21: 3-12.
Geach, P. T. 1969a. "A Reply." Review of Metaphysics 22: 556-59.
Geach, P. T. (1969b). The Perils of Pauline. The Review of Metaphysics, 23(2), 287-300.
Geach, P. T. 1980b. Reference and Generality. 3d ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Gibbard, A. (1975). "Contingent Identity. Journal of Philosophical Logic, 4(2), 187-221.
Hirsch, E. (1992). The Concept of Identity. Oxford University Press.
Johnston, M. (1992). "Constitution is not identity". Mind, 101(401), 89-105.
Kant, Immanuel. (1977) Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, Hackett
Kripke, Saul. 1971. "Identity and Necessity." In Munitz 1971, 135-164.
Kripke, Saul. 1981. "Naming and Necessity." Blackwell Publishing.
Leibniz, G. W. 1969. Philosophical Papers and Letters, ed. L. E. Loemker. Dordrecht: Reidel.
Leibniz, G. W. 1981. New Essays on Human Understanding, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leibniz, G. W. 1973. Discourse on Metaphysics, 2d ed. La Salle, IL: Open Court.
Lewis, D. K. (1986). On the plurality of worlds. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lewis, D. (1988). "Rearrangement of particles: reply to Lowe." Analysis, 48(2), 65-72.
Leonard, H. S., & Goodman, N. (1940). "The calculus of individuals and its uses." The Journal of Symbolic Logic, 5(2), 45-55.
Lewis, D. K. (1997). "Counterparts or Double Lives?," in Rea, M. C., ed., Material Constitution
Lloyd, A. C. (1970). Aristotle's Principle of Individuation." Mind, 79(316), 519-529.
Long, A. A. (1971). Problems in stoicism. Athlone Press
Long, A. A. (1982). "Soul and body in Stoicism." Phronesis, 34-57.
Long, A. A. and D. N. Sedley, (1987) The Hellenistic Philosophers, Cambridge University Press
Lowe, E. J. (1987). "Lewis on perdurance versus endurance." Analysis, 47(3), 152-154.
Lowe, E. J. (1988). "The problems of intrinsic change: Rejoinder to Lewis." Analysis, 48(2), 72-77.
Lowe, E. J. (1994). "Vague identity and quantum indeterminacy." Analysis, 54(2), 110-114.
Lowe, E. J. (1995). "Coinciding objects: in defence of the 'standard account'. Analysis, 55(3), 171-178.
Lowe, E. J. (1998). The Possibility of Metaphysics. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.
Lowe, E. J. (2002). A Survey of Metaphysics. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.
Lowe, E. J. (2006). "Non-Cartesian substance dualism and the problem of mental causation. Erkenntnis, 65(1), 5-23.
Lowe, E. J., & Noonan, H. W. (1988). "Substance, identity and time." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes, 62, 61-100.
Marcus, R. B. (1961). Modalities and intensional languages. Synthése, 13(4), 303-322.
Marcus, R. B. (1975, January). Dispensing with possibilia. In Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association (Vol. 49, pp. 39-51).
Barcan Marcus, R. (1985). Possibilia and Possible Worlds. in Modalities .
Munitz, Milton, ed. 1971. Identity and Individuation. New York: New York University Press.
Noonan, Harold. 1976. "Wiggins on Identity." Mind 85: 559-75.
Noonan, Harold. 1985a. "Wiggins, Artefact Identity and 'Best Candidate' Theories." Analysis 45:4-8.
Noonan, Harold. 1985b. "The Closest Continuer Theory of Identity." Inquiry 28: 195-229.
Noonan, Harold. 1988, "Reply to Lowe on Ships and Structures." Analysis 48: 221-23.
Noonan, H. W. (1993). "Constitution is identity." Mind, 102(405), 133-146.
Olson, E. T. (2001). "Material coincidence and the indiscernibility problem." The Philosophical Quarterly, 51(204), 337-355.
Quine, W. V. 1943. "Notes on Existence and Necessity." The Journal of Philosophy 40 (5) p.113
Quine, W. V. 1947. "The Problem of Interpreting Modal Logic." The Journal of Symbolic Logic 12 (2) p.43
Quine, W. V. 1950. "Identity, Ostension, and Hypostasis."
Quine, W. V. I960. Word and Object. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Quine, W. V. 1961. "Reference and Modality." In Quine 1980, 139-59.
Quine, W. V. 1969. Ontological Relativity and Other Essays. New York: Columbia University Press.
Quine, W. V. 1980. From a Logical Point of View, 2d ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rea, M. C. (1995). The problem of material constitution.. The Philosophical Review, 104(4), 525-552.
Rea, M. C. (1997). Material Constitution: A Reader. Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littlefield.
Rea, M. C. (2002). World Without Design: The Ontological Consequences of Naturalism: Clarendon Press
Rea, M. C. (2008). Metaphysics: critical concepts in philosophy. 5 vols. London ; New York: Routledge.
Rea, M. C. (2009). Arguing about metaphysics. New York, Routledge.
Rea, M. V. (2014). Metaphysics: The Basics. London, Routledge.
Regis, E. (1976). "Aristotle's Principle of Individuation." Phronesis, 157-166.
Russell, Bertrand. 1905. "On Denoting." Mind, 14(56), 479-493.
Sedley, D. N. 1982. "The Stoic Criterion of Identity." Phronesis 27: 255-75.
Sedley, D. N. (2010). "Matter in Hellenistic philosophy." Materia: XIII Colloquio internazionale del Lessico Intellettuale Europeo. Roma, 53-66.
Sidelle, A. (2002). ""Is there a true metaphysics of material objects?" Noûs, 36(s1), 118-145.
Sider, T. (2001). Four-Dimensionalism. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Sider, T. J. Hawthorne, and D. W. Zimmerman. (2008) Contemporary Debates in Metaphysics, Blackwell Publishing.
Sider, T. (2011). Writing the Book of the World. Oxford University Press.
Simons, P.M. (1987). Parts: A Study in Ontology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press.
Taylor, Richard. (1963) Metaphysics. Foundations of Philosophy Series. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.
Thomasson, A. L. (2006). "Metaphysical arguments against ordinary objects." The Philosophical Quarterly, 56(224), 340-359.
Thomson, J. J. (1983). "Parthood and identity across time." The Journal of Philosophy, 80(4), 201-220.
Thomson, J. J. (1998). "The statue and the clay. Noûs, 32(2), 149-173.
Tomberlin J. and P. van Inwagen. 1979. Alvin Plantinga , Dordrecht: D. Reidel.
Unger, Peter. 1979a. "There Are No Ordinary Things." Synthése 41: 117-54.
Unger, Peter. 1979b. "Why There Are No People." In Midwest Studies in Philosophy. Vol 4. pp. 177-222 Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Unger, Peter.1980a. "Skepticism and Nihilism." Nous 14: 517-45.
Unger, Peter.1980b. "The Problem of the Many." In Midwest Studies in Philosophy. Vol. 5 Studies in Epistemology (pp. 411-68), ed. P. French, T. Uehling, and H. Wettstein Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Unger, Peter. 1990. Identity, Consciousness, and Value. New York: Oxford University Press
Unger, Peter. 2004. "The Mental Problems of the Many", Oxford Studies in Metaphysics, Vol.1 (2004): 195.
Van Inwagen, Peter. 1980a. "Philosophers and the Words 'Human Body.'" In van Inwagen 1980b, 283-99
Van Inwagen, Peter.1980b. Time and Cause: Essays Presented to Richard Taylor. Dordrecht Reidel.
Van Inwagen, P. (1981). "The Doctrine of Arbitrary Undetached Parts," Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 62, 123-137.
Van Inwagen, Peter. 1985. "Plantinga on Trans-World Idenity." In Alvin Plantinga (pp. 101-20). ed. J. Tomberlin and P. van Inwagen. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.
Van Inwagen, Peter. 1987. "When Are Objects Parts?" In Philosophical Perspectives. Vol. 1 Metaphysics (pp. 21-48), ed. J. Tomberlin. Atascadero, CA: Ridgeview.
Van Inwagen, Peter. 1988. "How to Reason about Vague Objects." Philosophical Topics 16: 255-84.
Van Inwagen, Peter. 1990. Material Beings. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Van Inwagen, Peter. (2014) Metaphysics. Fourth Edition, Boulder: Westview Press.
Van Inwagen, Peter, Metaphysics, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Van Inwagen, P., and D. W. Zimmerman. (2008) Metaphysics: The Big Questions, 2nd Ed., Blackwell Publishing.
Whiting, J. E. (1986). Form and individuation in Aristotle." History of Philosophy Quarterly, 3(4), 359-377.
Wiggins, David. 1963. "Individuation of Places and Things." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Suppl. 37: 177-202.
Wiggins, David. 1965. "Identity Statements," in Analytical Philosophy, Second Series, Oxford: Blackwell.
Wiggins, David. 1967. Identity and Spatio-Temporal Continuity. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wiggins, David. 1968. "On Being in the Same Place at the Same Time." Philosophical Review 77:90-5
Wiggins, David. 1974. "Essentialism, Continuity, and Identity." Synthése 28:321-359
Wiggins, David. 2001. Sameness and Substance Renewed. Cambridge University Press.
Williams, B. A. (1964). "Personal identity and individuation." In Essays in Philosophical Psychology (pp. 324-345). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
Williamson, T. 2002. "Necessary Existents, in Logic, Thought and Language, Cambridge University Press, pp. 233-251

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